Upland Game Birds
Males (toms) measure about 48" tall, while females (hens) are about 36" tall. Wild turkey are brown in color, barred with black, with iridescent feathers. The head and neck are unfeathered with blue and red wattles. They have a fan-shaped tail with chestnut, buff, or white tail tips. Toms have spurs and a long beard on their breast. Hens are smaller and lack the spurs. However, a small percentage of hens will also have a beard.
Wild turkeys make gobbling sounds similar to the calls made by domestic turkey.
Wild turkeys are usually found within oak woodlands, pine-oak forests, and open fields.
Acorns and other mast (hard fruit), fleshy fruits, corn, a variety of seeds, and invertebrates. Young turkeys in particular feed heavily on insects.
Wild turkeys will lay anywhere from 8 to 14 eggs at the rate of about one per day. Eggs are kept in a shallow depression that's lined with leaves, grass, and straw. The eggs are buff-colored and spotted with brown.
Wild turkeys range from the southern United States from Arizona east, and north up to New England. Wild turkey were also introduced to many western states such as Oregon and California.
- Wild turkeys were hunted almost to extinction by the end of the 19th century. However, protection and restocking programs are helping this bird make a comeback.
- Wild turkeys have well developed instincts for survival, and they have excellent eyesight and hearing. This is why few predators are able to catch the wild turkey.
- Roosting often occurs over water due to the protection this offers.
- Wild turkeys are polygamous. Toms gobble and strut with their tail fanned to attract their harem.
- Wild turkeys may range over several square miles in a single day.
- The tracks of an adult tom are six to seven inches long; adult hen tracks are four and one-half to five inches long.
Upland Game Birds
Ring-necked pheasant measure from 30" to 36" and have a long pointed tail. Males have a red patch around their eye, dark green heads, and a white ring around the neck. The body is patterned in an iridescent yellowish brown. The female has blotches sandy brown in color and has a shorter tail.
Ring-necked pheasant make a loud "caw-cawk" sound followed by a resonant flapping of the wings. When alarmed these birds fly off while producing a loud cackle.
Ring-necked pheasant inhabit fertile cropland, cultivated grain fields, and grassy woodland edges.
Adults feed primarily upon waste grains, weed seeds, soft mast, and insects which are located by scratching.
Ring-necked pheasant will lay anywhere from 6 to 15 olive-colored eggs. The nest is built in a grass-lined depression that's well concealed in grass or weeds.
Ring-necked pheasant - native to Asia - were introduced to and range from British Columbia, Alberta, Minnesota, Ontario, and the Maritime Provinces south to California, Oklahoma, and Maryland.
- Ring-necked pheasant were successfully introduced in North American in 1881 in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. They were imported from their native range in Asia and China.
- Pheasant usually need only a minimum of cover.
- Pheasant are polygamous. One male will support a harem of up to 12 hens.
- Nesting often occurs just outside cities.
- Pheasant live very well in most grassland habitats, but thrive in the central plains of North American.