MSN Home  |  My MSN  |  Hotmail
Sign in to Windows Live ID Web Search:   
go to MSNGroups 
Free Forum Hosting
 
Important Announcement Important Announcement
The MSN Groups service will close in February 2009. You can move your group to Multiply, MSN鈥檚 partner for online groups. Learn More
Silken Fire's Fireplace IIContains "mature" content, but not necessarily adult.SilkenFiresFireplaceII@groups.msn.com 
  
What's New
  
  Silken Fire's Fireplace II  
  Your Hosts And Hostesses  
  Hosts and Hostesses  
  Fire's Principles  
  Misbehavin' Policies  
  
  Fireplace News  
  Opinion Forum  
  Messages  
  Messages  
  General  
  Heart Storms  
  Heart Storms  
  GRRR & Vent  
  Peaceful Debates  
  Peaceful Debates  
  MSN Servers  
  SNAGGABLES  
  SNAGGABLES  
  C & P Backgrounds  
  C & P Background  
  Your Mail  
  Mailboxes A - C  
  Mailboxes D - F  
  Mailboxes G - I  
  Mailboxes J - L  
  Mailboxes M - O  
  Mailboxes P - R  
  Mailboxes S - U  
  Mailboxes V - X  
  Mailboxes Y - Z  
  MEMBERS' SIGN-INS  
  Member Sign Ins  
  Member of the Month  
  Member of Month  
  Springburst: Fun & Fitness  
  Members' Surveys & Intros  
  Member Intro's  
  Our Lil People & Pets  
  Lil Peeps & Pets  
  Happy Birthday!  
  Happy Birthday!  
  In Loving Memory  
  In Loving Memory  
  Singles' Tips  
  Singles Tips  
  Dating Tips  
  Dating Tips  
  New Relationship  
  New Relationship  
  So Far Away...  
  Long Distance Love  
  Relationships  
  Relationships  
  Marriage Tips  
  Marriage Tips  
  Add Sizzle  
  Add Sizzle  
  Romantic Fantasies  
  Romantic Fantasy  
  Midlife Issues  
  Midlife Issues  
  When Loved Ones Hurt  
  Helping Friends  
  People Builders  
  People Builders  
  Career Issues  
  Career Issues  
  Disabilities  
  Disabilities  
  Let's Be REAL!!!  
  Topic Q & A's  
  Topic Articles  
  Family Troubles  
  Family Troubles  
  Parenting  
  Parenting  
  Step-Parenting  
  Step-Parenting  
  Broken and Hurting  
  Broken & Hurting  
  Abused Souls  
  Abused Souls  
  What Men Want  
  Men Want......  
  What Women Want  
  Women Want......  
  He Said / She Said  
  He Said/She Said  
  Our Mystical Realm  
  Mystical Realm  
  Silken's Country  
  Silk's Country  
  Our Garden of Peace  
  "She Weaves"  
  "The Mask"  
  Angel of Highway 109  
  The Strength of a Man  
  The Girl Inside  
  Garden of Peace  
  Silken's Retreat  
  Silken Talks  
  Prose and Poetry  
  Prose and Poetry  
  LMAO Stuff  
  LMAO Stuff  
  Pictures  
  Sign-In & Checkin In Tags  
  Scenery  
  Ally's Album  
  Lady's Gary Allan  
  Angels  
  Angel GIF'S  
  Animations 2  
  Animations 3  
  Animations - Animals  
  Animated GIF's  
  Babies  
  Backgrounds 1  
  Backgrounds 2  
  Backgrounds 3  
  Backgrounds - Nature  
  Backgrounds - Romantic  
  Backgrounds - Sensual  
  Biker Snags  
  Birthday Wishes  
  Body Parts  
  Bumpin' It Up  
  Bye, See Ya, Hurry Back, etc  
  Click Me's  
  Compliments  
  Condolences  
  Congratulations  
  Country  
  Couples  
  Couples 2  
  Cowboys  
  Cowgirls  
  Dancers  
  Debate Stuff  
  Dividers & Decorations  
  Dragons  
  Dreams 'n Wishes  
  Emotions  
  Fantasy Women  
  Fantasy Art  
  Flowers  
  Friends & Friendship  
  Fridays  
  Funny GIF's  
  Funnies & Moods  
  More Funnies  
  Funny Sayings  
  Get Well  
  Good Day, Weekend, etc  
  Good Morning  
  Good Night  
  Great Day Etc  
  Great Week, Weekend  
  Heartache, Sadness, etc.  
  Hello, Howdy, Hi  
  Hugs, etc.  
  Kisses  
  Kisses 'n Lips  
  Last Word  
  Lol, lmao & rofl  
  Love & Inspiration  
  Mail Stuff  
  Masculine Tags  
  Men  
  Men 2  
  Men - Fantasy  
  Missing You  
  Monday  
  Months  
  MSN tags  
  Romance 'n Glitters  
  Saturdays  
  Self Esteem & Inspirations  
  Smilies  
  Sorry, Forgive me, etc  
  Spiritual, Religious, etc  
  Sunday  
  Teasing, Fighting 'n Feelin'  
  Thank You's  
  Thoughts & Prayers  
  Thursday  
  Tuesday  
  Under Construction  
  Weddings  
  Wednesdays  
  Welcome & WB  
  Women  
  Women 2  
  Women 3  
  Women - Fantasy  
  Wow & Woohoo  
  You Have Mail  
  Zodiac Signs  
  Christmas 2006  
  Christmas 2007  
  Christmas Pics & GIF's  
  Easter  
  Father's Day  
  Hallowe'en 2  
  Hallowe'en GIF's & Stuff  
  New Years  
  Remembrance Day  
  St. Patrick's Day  
  Thanksgiving  
  Valentines  
  Andy  
  Bella's Album  
  Cocopuff's Corner  
  Cowboy Country Gent  
  Ginger's Girls  
  Ginger Christmas  
  Ginger's Photos  
  Ginger's Welcomes  
  Hergman's Pics  
  Lady Asst Manager  
  Lady Checking In  
  Lady's Christmas  
  Lady's Family  
  Lady Misc  
  Lady's Stuff..morn, eve, etc  
  Lady Tags  
  Lady's Welcomes  
  Love Muffin (aka Mish)  
  My Blue Hawgs 2, 3 & 5  
  Shyann and Rat and Arley  
  Shy n Rats Critters n Stuff  
  Glimpse Of Traveler  
  Alphas for Fireplace  
  Silken's Pets... Meet Justus  
  Silken's Dancers  
  Silken's Mgr Stuff  
  Silkens Photos  
  Silken's Personal Photos  
  Silken Siggies  
  Silken's Siggies 2  
  Silken's Siggies 3  
  Silken's Siggies 4  
  Fireplace Hosts & Hostesses  
  Fireplace Auth Tags  
  Fireplace Backgrounds  
  Fireplace Glitter Text  
  Fireplace Logos  
  Fireplace Site Map  
  Friends of Fire  
  MSN Emotions  
  Chat Acronyms  
  More Chat Acronyms  
  Fancy Nicknames  
  Fancy Nic's II  
  Fancy Characters III  
  Email Settings  
  Create Fancy Fonts  
  More Fancy Fonts  
  Alt Key Codes List  
    
    
  Links  
  Lest We Forget  
  CHRISTMAS CHEER  
  Christmas Snaggs  
  Christmas Fun  
  Xmas Info  
  Blue Christmas  
  Sensual Xmas  
  Xmas Belly Laffs  
  Xmas Recipes  
  Christmas Beauty  
  Lest We Forget  
  Family Issues  
  Fun & Fitness  
  Alt Key Flourishes  
  GRRR !#!$@~!!!  
  
  
  Tools  
 
Abused Souls : Post Traumatic Stress Disorders Resulting From Domestic Violence
Choose another message board
 
     
Reply
Recommend  Message 1 of 1 in Discussion 
From: MSN NicknameSilken2004  (Original Message)Sent: 7/24/2007 6:42 AM

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):

Symptoms, Types and Treatment

Traumatic experiences can produce feelings of anxiety, depression, despair, hopelessness, reoccurring anger, self-blame, guilt, and shame, as well as sexual dysfunction, compulsive or aggressive behaviors, sleep disorders, and concentration problems.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a medically recognized disorder that occurs in normal individuals under extremely stressful conditions. Its symptoms affect people from all walks of life, including soldiers, victims of natural disasters or serious accidents. PTSD can affect people who provide emergency services for others. Some individuals who survive a traumatic event are affected so strongly by the experience that they are unable to live normal lives.

What are the symptoms of PTSD?

There are four main types of PTSD symptoms. A diagnosis of PTSD requires the presence of all categories of symptomatic responses:

  • Re-experiencing the trauma: flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive memories and exaggerated emotional and physical reactions to triggers that remind the person of the trauma.
  • Emotional numbing: feeling detached, lack of emotions (especially positive ones), loss of interest in activities
  • Avoidance: avoiding activities, people, or places that remind the person of the trauma
  • Increased arousal: difficulty sleeping and concentrating, irritability, hypervigilance (being on guard), and exaggerated startle response.

How do animal studies help us understand PTSD and its symptoms?

There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of PTSD are abnormal responses to stress. According to trauma authority Dr. Peter Levine, traumatic symptoms are not caused by the dangerous event itself. These symptoms arise when residual energy from the event is not discharged from the body, but remains trapped in the nervous system where it can wreak havoc on our bodies and minds.

Levine observes that wild prey animals, though threatened routinely, are rarely traumatized. Animals in the wild utilize innate mechanisms to regulate and discharge the high levels of energy arousal associated with defensive survival behaviors. These mechanisms provide animals with a built-in ''immunity'' to trauma that enables them to return to normal in the aftermath of highly ''charged'' life-threatening experiences.

Although humans are born with virtually the same regulatory mechanisms as animals, the function of these instinctive systems is often overridden or inhibited. This restraint prevents the complete discharge of survival energies, and does not allow the nervous system to regain its equilibrium. From this perspective:

  • 鈥楾raumatic panic anxiety鈥?symptom occurs where normally varied and active defensive responses have been unsuccessful 鈥?when a situation, perceived as both dangerous and inescapable, results in a profound failure of innate defenses.
  • Un-discharged 鈥渟urvival energy鈥?remains 鈥渟tuck鈥?in the body and the nervous system 鈥?sympathetic and parasympathetic responses are concurrently activated, like brake and accelerator, working against each other.
  • Symptoms of trauma result from the body's attempt to ''manage'' and contain this unused energy.
  • Healing the symptoms of PTSD is accomplished by normalizing defense responses 鈥?by progressively re-establishing the pre-traumatic defensive and orienting responses that were in execution just prior to the initiation of immobility.

In summary, when the normal defensive resources fail to resolve the situation, terror- panic, rage and freezing occur. These emotional anxiety states are evoked when the feelings of danger-orientation and preparedness to flee are blocked or inhibited. It is this 鈥渢hwarting鈥?that results in freezing and anxiety-panic symptoms associated with PTSD.

What are the consequences of PTSD?

PTSD can have severe and long lasting effects on people's lives. Examples of outcomes of PTSD are:

Consequences of PTSD
Physiological outcomes
  • neurobiological changes (alterations in brainwave activity, in size of brain structures, and in functioning of processes such as memory and fear response)
  • psychophysiological changes (hyper-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, increased startle, sleep disturbances, increased neurohormonal changes that result in heightened stress and increased depression)
  • physical complaints that are often treated symptomatically, rather than as indications of PTSD (headaches, stomach or digestive problems, immune system problems, asthma or breathing problems, dizziness, chest pain, chronic pain or fibromyalgia)

Psychological outcomes

  • depression (major depressive episodes, or pervasive depression)
  • other anxiety disorders (such as phobias, panic, and social anxiety)
  • conduct disorders
  • dissociation ("splitting off" from the present, and into parts of the self)
  • eating disorders

Social outcomes

  • interpersonal problems
  • low self esteem
  • alcohol and substance use
  • employment problems
  • homelessness
  • trouble with the law

Self-destructive behaviors

  • substance abuse
  • suicidal attempts
  • risky sexual behaviors leading to unplanned pregnancy or STDs, including HIV
  • reckless driving
  • self-injury

What is Complex PTSD?

Prolonged, extreme traumatic circumstances 鈥?such as childhood sexual abuse, prisoner of war camps, or long-term domestic violence 鈥?can cause a form of PTSD called Complex PTSD. As in PTSD, ordinary, healthy persons under severe circumstances can experience changes in how they adapt to stress and how they view themselves. A mental health diagnosis called Borderline Personality Disorder is also highly indicative of a history of trauma, and is increasingly viewed as a type of Complex PTSD.

Possible symptoms of Complex PTSD are:

  • severe behavioral difficulties (such as alcohol/drug abuse, aggression, eating disorders)
  • difficulty in controlling intense emotions (such as anger, panic, or depression)
  • other mental difficulties (such as amnesia or dissociation 鈥?a serious condition called Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, which is characterized by "splitting off" parts of oneself).

Why do some people have stronger reactions than others to similar situations?

Anyone exposed to a severely traumatic experience is likely to have symptoms of post-traumatic stress. However, one person's symptoms may appear soon after the event, while another's may not surface for several months or maybe even for years. One person may have relatively minor difficulty adjusting and returning to a fairly normal state, with mild and occasional flare-ups, while another might be debilitated for years to come. Even if two people are exposed to the same situation at the same time, they will have different levels of reaction.

While there is no scientific way to predict or measure the potential effect of a traumatic event on different people, certain variables seem to have the most impact:

  • the extent to which the event was unexpected, uncontrollable, and inescapable
  • perceived extent of threat or danger, suffering, upset, terror, and fear
  • source of the trauma (human-caused is generally more difficult than event of nature)
  • sexual victimization, especially when a sense of betrayal is involved
  • actual or perceived responsibility
  • prior vulnerability factors (such as genetics, early onset and extent of childhood trauma)
  • negative social environment (shame, guilt, stigmatization)
  • lack of appropriate social or emotional support
  • concurrent stressful life events

How is PTSD diagnosed?

A diagnosis of PTSD is made when symptoms in the main clusters (re-experiencing, numbing, avoidance, and arousal) are present for an extended period and are interfering with normal life. The first step in getting treatment is getting a diagnosis. This can be difficult for a number of reasons:

  • symptoms may occur months or years after the traumatic event and may not be recognized as being related to the trauma
  • beliefs that people "should be able to get over it" or "shouldn't have such a reaction" or "should solve their own problems" may delay treatment being sought
  • guilt, blame, embarrassment or pain may interfere with a person seeking help
  • avoidance of anything associated with the trauma may result in an inability to recognize the need for treatment

How is PTSD commonly treated?

Symptoms of PTSD are commonly treated by:

Psychotherapy

Because PTSD has so strongly affected the brain itself, treatment often takes longer and progresses more slowly than with other types of anxiety disorders, and is most effective with a specialist in trauma recovery. It is most important to feel comfortable and safe with the therapist, so there is no additional fear or anxiety about the treatment itself. Depending on the extent of the symptoms, it may be more effective to see the therapist several times a week, if possible.

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), often including exploring personal history as well as history of the event, challenging beliefs and thoughts that lead to distress, learning to recognize and manage "triggering" episodes, and exposure or desensitization (gradual re-introduction to the event that caused the trauma)
  • Psychotherapy may include relaxation techniques (deep breathing, muscle relaxation, positive imagery, meditation, neurofeedback, prayer, etc.) There are documented instances where relaxation was counterproductive鈥攖riggering rather than relieving symptoms.
  • Psychotherapy may take place in a group setting.

Medications

  • anti-anxiety medications or anti-depressants to calm anxiety and stabilize mood while other self-care tools are learned
  • used most frequently in conjunction with standard psychotherapies

There are also newer effective approaches to healing PTSD that integrate cognitive, emotional and sensory motor experience.

What therapies treat PTSD symptoms by integrating cognitive, emotional and sensory/motor experience?

Noted trauma authority and author Bessel van der Kolk has written, "... re-living trauma often occurs in the form of physical sensations that precipitate emotions of terror and helplessness. Learning how to manage and release these physical sensations from trauma-based emotions is an essential aspect of the effective treatment of PTSD.鈥?

There are now a number of schools of what has come to be known a somatic psychotherapy which utilize cognitive, emotional and sensory/motor experience to treat PTSD. These include:

  • EMDR therapy combines a somatic therapeutic approach with eye movements or other forms of rhythmical stimulation, such as hand taps or sounds that stimulate and integrate the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
  • Somatic experiencing is a therapy developed by Peter Levine that incorporates observations of how animals treat themselves following traumatic events and focuses on restoring normality to the stress response. According to Levine, the symptoms of trauma result from highly activated incomplete biological response to threat. Wild animals have the ability to 鈥渟hake off鈥?this excess energy. By enabling humans to do the same, trauma can be healed

I am
seeking
between
and
zip code
 

First  Previous  No Replies  Next  Last